Vega is a brilliant magnitude +0.03 blue-tinged white main sequence star located in the constellation Lyra. Its marginally brighter than Capella (α Aur - mag. +0.08) and slightly fainter than Arcturus (α Boo - mag. -0.04) making it the second brightest star in the northern section of the sky. With a declination of 38 degrees north, Vega appears high in the sky and even overhead from northern temperate latitudes. The star is visible at sometime or another from anywhere north of 51 degrees south and therefore can been from the majority of Southern Hemisphere including all of Australia, New Zealand, South Africa and most of Argentina and Chile.

Vega is a dazzling beacon of light amongst the relatively faint but prominent constellation of Lyra. It was originally named Wega from a derivative of the Arabic phrase "Al Nasr al Waqi" or Swooping Eagle. Around 12,000 BC, Vega was the North Pole star and will return there again around 13,700 AD. It's probably unsurprising given its brilliance and prominent northern position that Vega is one of the most investigated of all stars. It was one of the first stars to have its distance determined by parallax and was the first star other than the Sun to be photographed and have its spectrum determined. Vega also makes up the brightest corner of the well-known Summer Triangle, along with Altair (α Aqr - mag. +0.77) and Deneb (α Cyg - mag +1.25). This bright asterism was popularised by American author H.A. Rey and British astronomer Sir Patrick Moore in the 1950s.

Vega (Fred Espenak)

Vega is a spectral class A0Va star that's positioned within the main sequence of the Hertzsprung-Russel diagram. It's a nearby star that's only 25 light-years distant and relatively young at 455 million years, equal to about 1/10 the age of the Sun. However, Vega is burning through its hydrogen fuel at a much faster rate than our star and is expected to start becoming an M class red giant in another 500 million years. For comparison, the same scenario will not happen to the Sun for over 5 billion years! Even though it's more than twice as massive as the Sun and over 40 times more luminous, Vega is not massive enough to explode as a supernova and will end its life, just like the Sun, as a white dwarf. Visible in amateur scopes are two faint companions at magnitude +9.5 and +11.0, although both are unrelated and much further away than Vega.

Recent observations suggest that the star is slightly variable and of the Delta Scuti type and if confirmed it would be the brightest example of this type. Surrounding Vega are disks of dust and debris extending for hundreds of astronomical units (AU).

The charts below show the position of Vega. It's best seen during the months of June, July and August.

Finder Chart for Vega (Alpha Lyrae)

Finder Chart for Vega (Alpha Lyrae) - pdf format

Vega Data Table

NameVega
Bayeralpha (α) Lyr
Flamsteed3 Lyr
ConstellationLyra
RA (J2000)18h 36m 56s
DEC (J2000)+38d 47m 01s
Distance (ly)25
Apparent Mag.0.03
Apparent Mag. Range-0.02 -> 0.07
Absolute Mag.0.58
Spectral TypeA0Va
Radius (Sol)2.6
Surface Temp. (K)9,600
Luminosity (Sol)40
Age (million years)455
Other designationsHR 7001, HD 172167, HIP 91262

Sky Highlights - May 2017

Mercury
Mercury reaches greatest elongation west on May 17, 2017

Meteor Shower
Eta Aquariids meteor shower peaks on May 5th and 6th, 2017

The Planets
This Month's Guide

Algol Minima
Algol eclipse dates and times for May 2017

Northern Hemisphere
Evening
West:- Mars (mag. +1.6)
South:- Jupiter (mag. -2.4)
Midnight
Southwest:- Jupiter
Southeast:- Saturn (mag. +0.2)
Morning
South:- Saturn
East:- Venus (mag. -4.7)

Southern Hemisphere
Evening
West:- Mars
North:- Jupiter
Midnight
Northwest:- Jupiter
North:- Saturn
Morning
Northwest:- Saturn
East:- Venus, Mercury (mag. +2.5 to -0.3), Neptune (mag. +7.9)

Deep Sky
Naked eye / binoculars:-
Melotte 111 - Mel 111 - The Coma Star Cluster (Open Cluster)
Messier 44 - M44 - The Praesepe (Open Cluster)

Telescopes:-
Messier 67 - M67 - Open Cluster
Messier 51 - M51 - The Whirlpool Galaxy (Spiral Galaxy)
Messier 97 - M97 - The Owl Nebula (Planetary Nebula)
Messier 101 - M101 - The Pinwheel Galaxy (Spiral Galaxy)
Messier 65 – M65 – Spiral Galaxy
Messier 66 - M66 - Intermediate Spiral Galaxy
Messier 95 - M95 - Barred Spiral Galaxy
Messier 96 - M96 - Intermediate Spiral Galaxy
NGC 4244 - Spiral Galaxy
NGC 4565 - Needle Galaxy - Spiral Galaxy

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