M78 is an often forgotten nebula in the constellation of Orion. It's a reflection nebula that's part of the Orion Molecular Cloud Complex, a large cloud of gas and dust centered on the famous Orion Nebula (M42) and De Mairan's Nebula (M43). Also included in this grouping are NGC 2064, NGC 2067 and NGC 2071 and other nebulae. Reflection nebulae like M78 are clouds of interstellar dust that shine due to reflected and scattered light from nearby stars.

M78 was discovered by Pierre Méchain in early 1780 with Charles Messier adding it to his catalogue on December 17, 1780. Although only of 8th magnitude, finding M78 is easy since it's positioned just a few degrees northeast of Orion's famous belt. The three bright stars that make up the belt are Alnitak (ζ Ori - mag. +1.72), Alnilam (ε Ori - mag. +1.69) and Mintaka (δ Ori - mag. +2.25). Positioned 2.5 degrees northeast of Alnitak is M78.

Reflection Nebula M78 in Orion (ESO/Igor Chekalin)

Finder Chart for M78 (also shown M42 and M43)

Finder Chart for M78 (also shown M42 and M43) - pdf format

The nebula is visible in 10x50 binoculars, appearing as a small, faint, hazy patch of light. A small telescope of aperture 80mm (3.1-inch) or large 20x80 binoculars reveal a little more detail, especially the brighter northern part of the nebula, which appears as a comet like fan shape. Also visible, surrounded by the nebula, are a pair of 10th magnitude stars that are responsible for making the cloud of dust visible. Of all known reflection nebulae, M78 is the brightest in the sky. With a 200mm (8-inch) or large scope it's possible to notice brighter areas and twists in the nebula especially when using averted vision.

About 45 variable stars of the T Tauri type, young stars still in the process of formation are known to exist in M78. Faint nebulosity, NGC 2071, lies very close to the north edge of M78.

M78 has an apparent size of 8.0 x 6.0 arc minutes. At a distance of 1,600 light-years this corresponds to a maximum spatial diameter of about 4 light-years. The nebula is best seen during the months of November, December and January

M78 Data Table

Messier78
NGC2068
Object TypeReflection Nebula
ConstellationOrion
Distance (kly)1.6
Apparent Mag.8.2
RA (J2000)05h 46m 46s
DEC (J2000)00d 04m 45s
Apparent Size (arc mins)8.0 x 6.0
Radius (light-years)2.0
Notable FeaturePart of Orion Molecular Cloud Complex

Sky Highlights - March 2017

Comet
Comet 41P/Tuttle-Giacobini-Kresak now visible with binoculars as it heads towards perihelion

Mercury
Mercury heading towards greatest elongation east

Minor Planet
Vesta now visible with binoculars and small telescopes.

The Planets
This Month's Guide

Algol Minima
Algol eclipse dates and times for March 2017

Northern Hemisphere
Evening
West:- Venus (mag. -4.8 to -4.1 - first half of month), Mars (mag. +1.3 to +1.5), Uranus (mag. +5.9), Mercury (mag. -1.5 to -0.4 - second half of month)
Midnight
Southeast:- Jupiter (mag. -2.3 to -2.5)
Morning
Southwest:- Jupiter
Southeast:- Saturn (mag. +0.5)

Southern Hemisphere
Evening
West:- Venus (first half of month), Mars, Uranus
Midnight
North:- Jupiter
East:- Saturn
Morning
West:- Jupiter
Northeast:- Saturn
East:- Neptune (mag. +8.0 - second half of month)

Deep Sky
Naked eye / binoculars:-
Melotte 111 - Mel 111 - The Coma Star Cluster (Open Cluster)
Messier 44 - M44 - The Praesepe (Open Cluster)

Telescopes:-
Messier 67 - M67 - Open Cluster
Messier 51 - M51 - The Whirlpool Galaxy (Spiral Galaxy)
Messier 97 - M97 - The Owl Nebula (Planetary Nebula)
Messier 101 - M101 - The Pinwheel Galaxy (Spiral Galaxy)
Messier 65 – M65 – Spiral Galaxy
Messier 66 - M66 - Intermediate Spiral Galaxy
Messier 95 - M95 - Barred Spiral Galaxy
Messier 96 - M96 - Intermediate Spiral Galaxy
NGC 4244 - Spiral Galaxy
NGC 4565 - Needle Galaxy - Spiral Galaxy

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