M7 is a large magnificent naked eye open cluster located in the constellation of Scorpius. It's one of the brightest open clusters and has been known since ancient times. It was first recorded in 130 AD by Greek-Roman astronomer Ptolemy and in recognition of this early observation, M7 is often referred to as the Ptolemy Cluster. Italian astronomer Giovanni Batista Hodierna observed 30 stars sometime before 1654 and Charles Messier adding it to his catalogue in 1764.

With a combined magnitude of +3.3, M7 is the brightest and most obvious deep sky object in Scorpius. It's a giant group of 80 stars with an apparent diameter of 80 arc minutes, almost 3x that of the full Moon. To the naked eye, M7 appears as a very large hazy patch with its brightest stars just about resolvable. It's so bright that it's even noticeable under suburban skies. With a declination of -34.8 degrees, the cluster is the southernmost Messier object and therefore best seen from the Southern Hemisphere particularly during the months of June, July and August. From most northern temperate locations it appears low down, at best climbing just a few degrees above the horizon. From northern latitudes above 56 degrees it never even rises.

M7 is located in eastern Scorpius, close to the Sagittarius border. It's positioned 4.75 degrees northeast of the constellations second brightest star, lambda Sco (λ Sco - mag. +1.6). Also known as Shaula, λ Sco marks the end of the Scorpions tail and part of the stinger. The Butterfly Cluster (M6) is located 4 degrees northwest of M7.

M7 Ptolemy's Cluster (credit:- NOAO/AURA/NSF)

Finder Chart for M7 (credit:- freestarcharts)

Finder Chart for M7 - pdf format (credit:- freestarcharts)

Finder Chart for M8 (also shown M6, M7, M18, M20->M24, M28, M54, M55, M69 and M70)

Finder Chart for M8 (also shown M6, M7, M18, M20->M24, M28, M54, M55, M69 and M70) - pdf format

Due to its large size, M7 is best seen through binoculars or in a wide field telescope where it appears as a loose cluster of approximately twenty scattered stars. Averted vision reveals fainter background stars. Even at low powers through a 200mm (8-inch) scope, M7 will often overflow the eyepiece field of view. It appears as a very loose collection of mainly white and blue/white stars. There is one notable exception, the brightest individual member star shines at mag. +5.6 and is an orange/yellow star of spectral type G8.

In the same field of view as M7 is the faint and distant globular cluster NGC 6453. It appears as an 11th magnitude spot of fuzzy nebulosity, spanning only one arc minute across.

M7 is located about 800 light-years from Earth. It has an actual diameter of 40 light-years and is estimated to be 220 Million years old.

M7 Data Table

Messier7
NGC6475
NameThe Ptolemy Cluster
Object TypeOpen cluster
ConstellationScorpius
Distance (light-years)800
Apparent Mag.+3.3
RA (J2000)17h 53m 51s
DEC (J2000)-34d 47m 34s
Apparent Size (arc mins)80 x 80
Radius (light-years)20
Age (years)220 Million
Number of Stars80
Other NameCollinder 354

Sky Highlights - March 2017

Comet
Comet 41P/Tuttle-Giacobini-Kresak now visible with binoculars as it heads towards perihelion

Mercury
Mercury heading towards greatest elongation east

Minor Planet
Vesta now visible with binoculars and small telescopes.

The Planets
This Month's Guide

Algol Minima
Algol eclipse dates and times for March 2017

Northern Hemisphere
Evening
West:- Venus (mag. -4.8 to -4.1 - first half of month), Mars (mag. +1.3 to +1.5), Uranus (mag. +5.9), Mercury (mag. -1.5 to -0.4 - second half of month)
Midnight
Southeast:- Jupiter (mag. -2.3 to -2.5)
Morning
Southwest:- Jupiter
Southeast:- Saturn (mag. +0.5)

Southern Hemisphere
Evening
West:- Venus (first half of month), Mars, Uranus
Midnight
North:- Jupiter
East:- Saturn
Morning
West:- Jupiter
Northeast:- Saturn
East:- Neptune (mag. +8.0 - second half of month)

Deep Sky
Naked eye / binoculars:-
Melotte 111 - Mel 111 - The Coma Star Cluster (Open Cluster)
Messier 44 - M44 - The Praesepe (Open Cluster)

Telescopes:-
Messier 67 - M67 - Open Cluster
Messier 51 - M51 - The Whirlpool Galaxy (Spiral Galaxy)
Messier 97 - M97 - The Owl Nebula (Planetary Nebula)
Messier 101 - M101 - The Pinwheel Galaxy (Spiral Galaxy)
Messier 65 – M65 – Spiral Galaxy
Messier 66 - M66 - Intermediate Spiral Galaxy
Messier 95 - M95 - Barred Spiral Galaxy
Messier 96 - M96 - Intermediate Spiral Galaxy
NGC 4244 - Spiral Galaxy
NGC 4565 - Needle Galaxy - Spiral Galaxy

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