M61, mag. +9.9, is a face-on barred spiral galaxy that belongs to the Virgo cluster of galaxies. It was discovered by Barnabus Oriani while comet chasing on May 5, 1779. Ironically, Charles Messier observed M61 on the same day but mistakenly though he had seen a comet! A few days later he realised his mistake.

M61 is reasonably large galaxy with a diameter of 100,000 light-years, similar to own Milky Way. It has an apparent size of 6.5 x 5.9 arc minutes and is located 52.5 million light-years distant. The galaxy appears visually compact and is one of the finest "small" barred spiral galaxies in the sky for large backyard scopes.

It's located 8 degrees northwest of binary star Porrima (γ Vir - mag. +2.7), 1.25 degrees north-northeast of 16 Vir (mag. +5.0) and best seen during the months of March, April and May.

M61 galaxy (Mike Herbaut/ESA/ESO/NASA)

Finder Chart for M61 (also shown M49 and M104)

Finder Chart for M61 (also shown M49 and M104) - pdf format

On dark nights, M61 can be spotted with small scopes as a faint patch of light. Through a 200mm (8-inch) instrument, it appears small with a stellar like core surrounded by a faint halo. Larger scopes of the order of 300mm (12-inch) display the structure in intricate detail with delicate spiral arms visible, surrounding a bright well-defined nucleus.

M61 is classification as a starburst galaxy due to high rates of star formation across its disk. This may be due to interactions with nearby satellite galaxies NGC 4292 and NGC 4303B. It's also a good galaxy for supernovae hunters. To date, seven have been observed with the brightest reaching magnitude +12 in 1964.

M61 Data Table

Messier61
NGC4303
Object TypeSpiral galaxy
ClassificationSAB(rs) bc
ConstellationVirgo
Distance (kly)52,500
Apparent Mag.9.9
RA (J2000)12h 21m 55s
DEC (J2000)04d 28m 24s
Apparent Size (arc mins)6.5 x 5.9
Radius (light-years)50,000
Number of Stars>300 Billion
Notable FeatureMember of the Virgo cluster of galaxies

Sky Highlights - March 2017

Comet
Comet 41P/Tuttle-Giacobini-Kresak now visible with binoculars as it heads towards perihelion

Mercury
Mercury heading towards greatest elongation east

Minor Planet
Vesta now visible with binoculars and small telescopes.

The Planets
This Month's Guide

Algol Minima
Algol eclipse dates and times for March 2017

Northern Hemisphere
Evening
West:- Venus (mag. -4.8 to -4.1 - first half of month), Mars (mag. +1.3 to +1.5), Uranus (mag. +5.9), Mercury (mag. -1.5 to -0.4 - second half of month)
Midnight
Southeast:- Jupiter (mag. -2.3 to -2.5)
Morning
Southwest:- Jupiter
Southeast:- Saturn (mag. +0.5)

Southern Hemisphere
Evening
West:- Venus (first half of month), Mars, Uranus
Midnight
North:- Jupiter
East:- Saturn
Morning
West:- Jupiter
Northeast:- Saturn
East:- Neptune (mag. +8.0 - second half of month)

Deep Sky
Naked eye / binoculars:-
Melotte 111 - Mel 111 - The Coma Star Cluster (Open Cluster)
Messier 44 - M44 - The Praesepe (Open Cluster)

Telescopes:-
Messier 67 - M67 - Open Cluster
Messier 51 - M51 - The Whirlpool Galaxy (Spiral Galaxy)
Messier 97 - M97 - The Owl Nebula (Planetary Nebula)
Messier 101 - M101 - The Pinwheel Galaxy (Spiral Galaxy)
Messier 65 – M65 – Spiral Galaxy
Messier 66 - M66 - Intermediate Spiral Galaxy
Messier 95 - M95 - Barred Spiral Galaxy
Messier 96 - M96 - Intermediate Spiral Galaxy
NGC 4244 - Spiral Galaxy
NGC 4565 - Needle Galaxy - Spiral Galaxy

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