M25 is a bright, mag. +4.6, naked eye open cluster in Sagittarius that's a wonderful sight in binoculars and small telescopes. It was discovered by Philippe Loys de Chéseaux in 1745 and subsequently catalogued by Charles Messier on June 20, 1764. There is however an unusual twist to the history of M25. For such a bright cluster it's reasonable to assume that it would have been included by John Herschel in his comprehensive 19th century General Catalogue. For unknown reasons it wasn't. This is despite the cluster been catalogued by Johann Elert Bode in 1777, observed by William Herschel in 1783 and described by Admiral Smyth in 1836. M25 was finally included in 1908, by J.L.E. Dreyer, in the supplementary Index Catalogue (as IC 4725).

Finding M25 is relatively easy. It's positioned 6.5 degrees north and a little east of the top star of the bright teapot asterism of Sagittarius, Kaus Borealis (λ Sgr - mag. +2.8). Only 3.5 degrees west of M25 is M24, the large Sagittarius Star Cloud.

The cluster is best seen from southern and equatorial regions during the months of June, July and August. For mid-latitude Northern Hemisphere observers, it appears low down during the summer months.

M25 Open Cluster (credit:- Sergio Eguivar)

Finder Chart for M25 (credit:- freestarcharts)

Finder Chart for M25 - pdf format (credit:- freestarcharts)

Finder Chart for M55 (also shown M22, M25, M28, M54, M69, M70 and M75) (credit:- freestarcharts)

Finder Chart for M55 (also shown M22, M25, M28, M54, M69, M70 and M75) - pdf format (credit:- freestarcharts)

To the naked eye, M25 appears as a faint fuzzy patch of light. It's better defined in 10x50 binoculars with the brightest stars resolvable. An 80mm (3.1-inch) telescope displays a large loosely defined irregular shaped grouping of about 30 mainly white stars. In medium size telescopes, it's easily resolvable and more striking as individual colours are pronounced. A 200mm (8-inch) scope reveals up to 60 stars of many colours spread across 32 arc minutes of apparent space.

The cluster contains four brighter stars, one of which is a Cepheid variable (U Sagittarii) that varies between mag. +6.3 and +7.1 over a period of 6.745 days. It appears yellowish in colour and is located towards the centre of the cluster. Since M25 contains many bright comparison stars, it's possible to accurately estimate the brightness of U Sagittarii over the full variation period.

In total, M25 contains at least 80 stars and is estimated to be 90 million years old. It's located 2,000 light-years from Earth and has a spatial diameter of 20 light-years.

M25 Data Table

Messier25
IC4725
Object TypeOpen cluster
ConstellationSagittarius
Distance (light-years)2,000
Apparent Mag.+4.6
RA (J2000)18h 31m 47s
DEC (J2000)-19d 06m 54s
Apparent Size (arc mins)32 x 32
Radius (light-years)10
Age (years)90 Million
Number of Stars>80
Other NamesCollinder 382, Melotte 204
Notable FeatureA Delta Cephei type variable star (U Sgr) is a cluster member

Sky Highlights - March 2017

Comet
Comet 41P/Tuttle-Giacobini-Kresak now visible with binoculars as it heads towards perihelion

Mercury
Mercury heading towards greatest elongation east

Minor Planet
Vesta now visible with binoculars and small telescopes.

The Planets
This Month's Guide

Algol Minima
Algol eclipse dates and times for March 2017

Northern Hemisphere
Evening
West:- Venus (mag. -4.8 to -4.1 - first half of month), Mars (mag. +1.3 to +1.5), Uranus (mag. +5.9), Mercury (mag. -1.5 to -0.4 - second half of month)
Midnight
Southeast:- Jupiter (mag. -2.3 to -2.5)
Morning
Southwest:- Jupiter
Southeast:- Saturn (mag. +0.5)

Southern Hemisphere
Evening
West:- Venus (first half of month), Mars, Uranus
Midnight
North:- Jupiter
East:- Saturn
Morning
West:- Jupiter
Northeast:- Saturn
East:- Neptune (mag. +8.0 - second half of month)

Deep Sky
Naked eye / binoculars:-
Melotte 111 - Mel 111 - The Coma Star Cluster (Open Cluster)
Messier 44 - M44 - The Praesepe (Open Cluster)

Telescopes:-
Messier 67 - M67 - Open Cluster
Messier 51 - M51 - The Whirlpool Galaxy (Spiral Galaxy)
Messier 97 - M97 - The Owl Nebula (Planetary Nebula)
Messier 101 - M101 - The Pinwheel Galaxy (Spiral Galaxy)
Messier 65 – M65 – Spiral Galaxy
Messier 66 - M66 - Intermediate Spiral Galaxy
Messier 95 - M95 - Barred Spiral Galaxy
Messier 96 - M96 - Intermediate Spiral Galaxy
NGC 4244 - Spiral Galaxy
NGC 4565 - Needle Galaxy - Spiral Galaxy

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